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پیشداوری‌ها عمری طولانی دارند: طبق یک نظرسنجی دوسوم آلمانی‌ها معتقدند که خارجی‌ها باری بر دوش صندوق خدمات اجتماعی این کشور هستند. درحالی که پرداختی خارجی‌های ساکن آلمان به صندوق تامین اجتماعی این کشور، در مجموع بیش از دریافتی آنهاست. این موضوعی است که موسسه مطالعات اقتصادی اروپا (ZEW)، آن را بر اساس یک تحقیق به سفارش بنیاد “برتلزمن” اثبات می‌کند.

 

خارجی‌ها میلیاردها یورو به اقتصاد آلمان کمک می‌کنند

پیشداوری‌ها عمری طولانی دارند: طبق یک نظرسنجی دوسوم آلمانی‌ها معتقدند که خارجی‌ها باری بر دوش صندوق خدمات اجتماعی این کشور هستند. اکنون یک موسسه مطالعات اقتصادی خلاف این را ثابت می‌کند.

پرداختی خارجی‌های ساکن آلمان به صندوق تامین اجتماعی این کشور، در مجموع بیش از دریافتی آنهاست. این موضوعی است که موسسه مطالعات اقتصادی اروپا (ZEW)، آن را بر اساس یک تحقیق به سفارش بنیاد “برتلزمن” اثبات می‌کند.

تنها در سال ۲۰۱۲، مازاد پرداخت و دریافت ۶ میلیون و ۶۰۰ هزار خارجی ساکن آلمان به صندوق اجتماعی بالغ بر ۲۲ میلیارد یورو بود. این افراد کسانی هستند که تابعیت آلمانی ندارند.

به این ترتیب و به طور میانگین، تفاضل سالیانه پرداختی هر خارجی (شامل مالیات، بیمه، بازنشستگی …) در مقایسه با کمک‌های اجتماعی دریافتی، ۳۳۰۰ یورو است.

سرانه این مازاد، طی ده سال گذشته دو برابر شده است؛ یعنی در این بازه زمانی‌، رقم میانگین خارجی‌هایی که مالیات و بیمه پرداخت می‌کنند به نسبت کسانی که صرفا از صندوق اجتماعی کمک می‌گیرند، دو برابر شده است.

طبق این پژوهش، ۶۷ درصد کل خارجی‌های مقیم آلمان، بیشتر از دریافت، پرداخت کرده‌اند و این میزان نزد آلمانی‌ها ۶۰ درصد است. با این وجود طبق نظرسنجی دیگری که بنیاد “برتلزمن” انجام داده، دو سوم آلمانی‌ها معتقدند که مهاجران باری بر دوش صندوق اجتماعی آلمان هستند.

“یورگ درگر” رئیس بنیاد برتلزمن می‌گوید که تحقیق اخیر، خطا بودن این پیشداوری را ثابت می‌کند. پژوهشگران همچنین معتقدند در صورت فراهم کردن امکانات بهتر آموزشی برای مهاجران و افزایش تخصص آنها، سهم خارجی‌ها در تقویت توان مالی صندوق اجتماعی آلمان بیشتر هم خواهد شد.

کارشناسان محاسبه کرده‌اند اگر سطح آموزشی خارجی‌های زیر ۳۰ سال به حد آلمانی‌ها برسد، درآمد آنها افزایش می‌یابد و این گروه سنی تا پایان عمر حدود ۱۱۸ هزار یورو بیشتر بابت مالیات و بیمه و بازنشستگی پرداخت خواهد کرد.

رئیس “بنیاد برتلزمن” می‌گوید یک سیاست آموزشی خوب برای مهاجران‌، ضامن هم‌پیوندی (انتگراسیون) موفق است: «کیفیت تخصصی خارجی‌ها در سال‌های گذشته هم به شکل محسوسی افزایش یافته است.»

همکاران این پژوهش یادآوری می‌کنند که براساس “سرشماری خرد” در سال ۲۰۰۹، سه‌چهارم شهروندان خارجی در شمار افراد دارای تخصص بالا و متوسط هستند. “هولگر بونین” از تنظیم‌کنندگان مطالعه یاد شده می‌گوید، صندوق اجتماعی آلمان می‌تواند به کمک مهاجران ماهر و متخصص، وضعیت مالی با ثبات و بادوامی بیابد.

بر پایه محاسبات «بنیاد برتلزمن»، در صورتی که سالانه حداقل ۲۰۰ هزار نیروی کار با تخصص بالا و متوسط (به ترتیب ۳۰ درصد و ۵۰ درصد) به آلمان مهاجرت کنند، هر یک از شهروندان آلمانی می‌توانند در طول سال، ۴۰۰ یورو در پرداخت مالیات صرفه‌جویی کنند.

طبق آمار مرکز ثبت فدرال، تا پایان سال ۲۰۱۳ تعداد خارجی‌های ساکن آلمان بالغ بر ۷ میلیون و ۶۰۰ هزار نفر بوده است. به طور قطع و به خاطر افزایش بحران‌های بین‌المللی و به دنبال آن، افزایش آوارگان و متقاضیان پناهندگی از کشورهایی مانند سوریه، میزان خارجی‌ها در آلمان در سال ۲۰۱۴ بیشتر خواهد بود.

در بین متقاضیان پناهندگی، افرادی تخصص‌های بسیار بالا دارند. آمار کل کسانی که از سال ۱۹۵۰ به آلمان مهاجرت کرده‌اند، بدون در نظر گرفتن تابعیت فعلی آنها، بالغ بر ۱۶ میلیون و ۵۰۰ هزار نفر است.

این یعنی کمی بیش از ۲۰ درصد جمعیت آلمان و به بیانی دیگر، از هر پنج شهروند آلمانی یک نفر پیشینه خارجی دارد.

رادیو زمانه ـ 8 آذر 1393

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